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When students participate in setting reasonably challenging goals, they are also practicing the executive functions of planning, time management, and prioritization. They not only feel good but also have greater potential to reach their goals. The goal-setting process also has the brain benefit of lowering students' affective filters and stimulating the dopamine reward system: the brain's release of the pleasure chemical dopamine during naturally rewarding experiences.

Students are more willing to invest their time and energy in an area of study when they collaborate on setting goals that lead them in the right direction. When those goals are carefully planned to incorporate authentic use of the standards' required academic knowledge, students will be more engaged in the learning because it will help them reach their goals.

Their increased investment in the outcome will also stimulate their interest in the tools teachers have to offer them. As students experience the connection between practice and progress in achieving their goals, they will appreciate their teachers for having provided them with the keys that unlock the doors to their aspirations. Goal planners—scaffolding tools that teachers can call such fun names as treasure charts, wizard plans , or trip planners —can help empower students in setting and achieving their individualized goals.

After teacher modeling and practice, students can reach varying levels of independence in creating their goal planners. Some students will develop their own wizard plans, and others will need preprinted treasure charts with spaces to write below column headings. These headings can also vary, but in general they will incorporate subject, activity, time allotted, predicted goal, and achievement. Before the class starts on an activity, students predict how much of the activity they will be able to complete in the time allotted.

After the activity, students complete the chart by recording the amount of work they actually completed.

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Students may need teacher guidance when they first begin to make predictions, but as they progress they will learn how to predict more accurately. Charting their predictions and outcomes on separate pages once a week or so can provide additional useful feedback on their long-term progress. As students review their weekly progress charts, teachers should encourage them to make a note of particularly successful strategies.

When students reach or exceed their goals, they set new short- and long-term goals. If they find they are now completing all vocabulary sentences in the allotted time, for example, they may choose to add one of the bonus words, conduct a self- or partner review of previous vocabulary words, or create a puzzle or story using the vocabulary words. Students who fail to reach their goals may need support to avoid falling into frustrated, self-defeating behaviors. These temporary setbacks can be opportunities for students to practice recognizing what strategies might have helped them succeed.

When students build a backlog of strategies that work for them, these setbacks will become learning experiences. Writing down their plans will help them remember these strategies the next time they return to the subject or activity. Teachers can build choice into the classroom community in a manner that does not separate students based on intellect or ability. When it is time to do independent classwork, for example, students can choose which assigned work to do first.

Having some students start their math homework while others conduct research for their reports combines choice with student activity variation. During this choice time, students will be doing work that needs varying amounts of teacher support. When more students are working at their independent levels or in cooperative groups, teachers have time to work with a few students who need more assistance, whether remedial or advanced. These classroom patterns become more effective as they become routine.

Most in-depth investigations and reports in history, language arts, or general science can follow curriculum guidelines and still be approached and presented in a variety of ways. Teachers may allow students to demonstrate their understanding through a broad array of projects, such as writing a report, making a board game or puzzle, or creating a book that includes questions and answers for students several grades below.

A note of caution: Problems can arise when choice takes precedence over learning objectives—for example, if certain students always choose to design book covers for their literature projects. These students are not striving for the challenge component of reasonable challenge. They are not extending their knowledge if they repeatedly choose the easiest or fastest activity. To avoid these situations, teachers should not give students responsibility for making all choices.

Teachers who are comfortably familiar with their students' learning levels can provide choices that offer all students equal opportunities to learn the required material at appropriately challenging levels and make sure that all students are progressing and not stagnating. Partial participation is a strategy that enables all students to follow a common curriculum at their own levels.

This adaptation of the curriculum incorporates individual goals with appropriate levels of differentiated challenge within the same assignments that peers without LD perform. The assignments are age- and interest-appropriate but geared to each individual's level of ability at that time. For example, students whose faulty memory tracking slows their mastery of the multiplication tables may need to use calculators temporarily. Other students may initially need to write their notes about the new topic on outlines that are already partially filled in.

This strategy keeps students motivated because they are stimulated by suitable challenge while working within their own comfort zones. This continual assessment creates opportunities for discovery learning within each student's zone of proximal development —the gap between the student's current or actual level of development and his or her emerging or potential level of development—while avoiding the frustration or resentment that activates the information-blocking power of the affective filter Routman, Through practice and more familiarity with the new topic, students will gradually need less scaffolding, but in the meantime, they will not be shut out from the lesson.

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Academic priming , or lesson previewing, can help students with disabilities prepare for the following day's lesson in advance, with an aide or with parents at home. For example, students who are easily confused early in a math lesson and become too frustrated to continue focusing will be more comfortable and confident if they preview the lesson's basics before class.

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Teachers can show parents how to help with this task and then gradually have students preview the material on their own. Usually after a few weeks, this process builds enough confidence that the cycle of early frustration breaks and students no longer need the preview. They begin to realize that they can keep up with new information in class if they stay attentive and don't give in to frustration the instant they feel the slightest confusion.

It may also help lower students' affective filters to know that when a new subject is introduced, their classmates are experiencing similar ups and downs in comprehension. Also, as students learn that their teacher will reexplain the concept to suit multiple learning styles, they will become less stressed when they don't understand something immediately. They will learn to trust that within a few minutes the teacher will present the information in a way they can access it.

Students get bombarded with an awful lot of information and can easily feel overwhelmed. One way to help all students increase the amount of information they retain from their hours in the classroom is to have them keep personal learning logs. Learning logs allow students to choose how they wish to connect to the information, although students are still accountable for including the important nuggets from each lesson. For each new class or topic during the day, depending on student age and ability, students make new entries in their logs. Students can list, sketch, chart, or diagram three to five main points, new items they learned, or facts that were emphasized during the class.

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The ideal time to complete this summary activity is immediately after the lesson. The learning log can be used for all subjects and as an addendum to regular notes and assignments. Because students have choice in how they log their new learning, the material becomes more personally meaningful. Using their preferred learning styles to record the material prompts students' most receptive brain centers when they review their logs.

If certain topics interest them, they can investigate those outside class and add information to the logs. Adding material of personal interest to them will increase their connections to the lessons and reinforce their relational memories.

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Another way to help students stay organized is to have them start homework, reports, and projects in class. Daily homework can be overwhelming once students leave the classroom, especially when that classroom includes a wide range of abilities. Information and instructions that seemed clear during class can become confusing when the scaffolding and security of teacher supervision is removed. Students with LD may be especially disturbed when they feel they have lost what they learned and can't do the work they are expected to do.

Starting homework and long-term projects in class provides students with structure that they can build on at home. Good feedback helps students examine their progress toward short- and long-term goals from an outside perspective or according to preset standards. As the unit of study advances, rubrics and formative assessment can help students monitor their progress and adjust their strategies and actions responsively.

Teachers can provide pre-feedback even before students begin a project, using rubrics or examples of student work from previous years. These work samples are especially helpful if teachers include examples of A-, B- , and C -level papers that match the high, medium, and low criteria included on the rubric. In inclusion classes, teachers can use the same rubric for all students and set individual goals at the appropriately challenging level for each student.

Rubrics generally include several categories of measurement, such as quality of work; organization; effectiveness in following assignment instructions; artwork, charts, or graphs; cooperation in group work; grammar and punctuation; and any other categories appropriate to the project. Rubric-based grading can keep the bar high in inclusion classes. Most students will feel capable of achieving the highest level in at least one rubric category. Even when they perform at the lowest level of another category, the high and low scores tend to balance out, and students could still end up with a fairly good grade.

Because rubrics prompt students to acknowledge their academic progress, they contribute to a sense of accomplishment and intrinsic motivation.

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Specific teacher comments along with rubric ratings can add to students' awareness of their successes and the areas in which they can improve. Teachers can find sample rubrics and online programs to create their own rubrics at rubistar. Formative assessment. Ongoing assessment is necessary to keep all students in inclusion classes actively connected to the lessons.

Teachers can implement many creative and effective assessment strategies during lessons, often with the help of students themselves. One quick way in which teachers can provide individual assessment and feedback during whole-class activities is to distribute whiteboards to students.

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When the teacher asks a question, each student writes his or her answer on the whiteboard and holds it up for the teacher to see. More simply, teachers can have students give the thumbs-up or thumbs-down sign in response to a yes-or-no question. Written teacher responses on papers and tests can also give students timely feedback on their work. To ensure that students actually read these comments, teachers can require them to return their papers with their written responses to the comments and a few ideas about what they will do next time to reach their goals and avoid the same errors.

Teachers should keep students in mind as potentially valuable partners in ongoing assessment while keeping in mind that they first need to model and have students practice feedback and assessment strategies.