Chaim Kaplan, a Jewish educator from Warsaw, made the following entries in his wartime diary:. Nowodworski did not agree to either, on the grounds that they were both against the Polish Constitution. Just the opposite. They show that they commiserate with us in our humiliation. They sit silent in the street cars, and in private conversation they even express words of condolence and encouragement.
Common suffering has drawn all hearts closer, and the barbaric persecutions of the Jews have even aroused feelings of sympathy toward them.
Tacitly, wordlessly, the two former rivals sense that they are brothers in misfortune; that they have a common enemy who wishes to bring destruction upon both at the same time. The conquerors are enraged and infuriated.
The German invasion brought about conflicts within the Jewish community itself. Jewish shopkeepers hoarded their merchandise in the expectation of profiting as prices skyrocketed due to shortages. Grunia Achlomov Dobrejcer, who had a philanthropic nature, and made a habit of lending money without interest to several neighbourhood merchants. But on 2 September , when my grandmother went to buy her daily bread rolls, the storekeeper—a poor woman who had borrowed money from her for years—now seemed to barely recognize her, and refused to sell her anything.
Perhaps the storekeeper was ashamed to charge her the new, inflationary price, for she sent my grandmother away with no bread. Throughout occupied Poland several hundred thousand Poles were displaced from their homes as a direct consequence of the German-ordered resettlement of Jews into ghettos.
Of the , Jews of Warsaw, more than , lived in the predominantly Jewish district. The remaining , lived throughout the city, some Jews in almost every street and suburb. On 3 October , at the start of the Jewish New Year, the German Governor of Warsaw, Ludwig Fischer, announced that all Jews living outside the predominantly Jewish district would have to leave their homes and to move to the Jewish area. Whatever belongings could be moved by hand, or on carts, could go with them.
The rest—the heavy furniture, the furnishings, the stock and equipment from shops and businesses—had to be abandoned. They too would lose their houses and their livelihoods. On October 12, the second Day of Atonement of the war, a day of fasting and of prayer, German loudspeakers announced that the move of Poles and Jews into their special quarters must be completed by the end of the month. Thousands of Christian businesses are going to be ruined. Chaim Kaplan, chronicler of the Warsaw ghetto, on the creation of the ghetto:.
Attack on Pearl Harbor | מוזיאון הלוחם היהודי במלחה"ע ה - 2
To a certain extent the edict has hurt the Poles more than the Jews, for the Poles are ordered to move not only from the ghetto, but from the German quarter as well. Nazism wants to separate everyone …. The Gentiles too are in mourning. Not one tradesman or storekeeper wants to move to a strange section, even if it be to an Aryan section.
It is hard for any man, whether Jewish or Aryan, to start making his life over. And so the panic in captured Warsaw, occupied by harsh masters, is great. By law a Jew is not permitted to remove the furniture when he vacates his apartment; in practice, however, the streets of Warsaw are full of carts loaded with furniture. Several days ago the Judenrat furnished a questionnaire to all the courtyard committees in which they were asked to give detailed replies to questions about the number of apartments, the number of rooms in each apartment, the number of tenants, and the prices of apartments.
On the basis of this information they will confiscate vacant rooms and settle homeless people in them … And so the people are hurriedly renting out rooms to tenants of their own choice. Incidentally, they are raising the rents sky-high. They are afraid that the Judenrat will match them up with the wrong people and make them stick to the prescribed rents, so they are hurrying to beat the Judenrat to the draw. Statisticians calculate that a hundred and forty thousand Aryans will vacate their apartments in the Jewish section, and that about a hundred and fifty thousand Jews will have to leave their apartments in the Aryan quarter.
On the other hand, most of the Jews who live in the Aryan quarter have high rents. The Aryans going from one section to the other cannot afford to pay high prices. The Jews driven out of their homes do not wish to live in dark narrow quarters even though the rent is low. The only thing common to both is that they both are dissatisfied with their lot … 5.
But initially conditions were tolerable. Israel Srul Cymlich, a resident of the suburban town of Falenica:. Immediately, the Volksdeutsche [ethnic Germans] placed themselves at the top. They were in the lead whenever Jews had to be rounded up for forced labor, or just to beat them up at any opportunity. Although our bakery had to produce quotas, we also baked for the free market. In general, baking bread for the free market was a widespread phenomenon. Chaim Kaplan, chronicler of the Warsaw ghetto:. Hoarding of food for evil times to come became a psychosis, and caused terrible turmoil in our minds and emotions.
But by now we have come to realize that it was an exaggerated fear. We are not short of any foodstuffs, and if you have the money you can enjoy all good things. In the show windows of the ghetto stores you can find all manners of delicacies, from honey cakes to the choicest wines. Smuggling across the border increases from day to day. This has become an occupation for thousands of people, both Jews and Aryans, since they have set up partnerships for smuggling food from the Aryan quarter to the Jewish ghetto. Even the Nazis participate in this. The attitude adopted by the Polish community in reaction to the terrible blow that befell the Jews was shaped, to a great extent, by the underground press, which was denouncing the establishment of the ghettos as a shameful atrocity.
Polish public opinion denounced the establishment of forced labor camps with equal force.
Although the Catholic Church [subject as it was to repressive measures unheard of in any other occupied country] could not reach the wide public through the written word, individual priests were able to from their pulpits. Emanuel Ringelblum, the chronicler of the Warsaw ghetto, notes in an entry in his diaries dated December 31, , that priests in all of the Warsaw churches exhorted their parishioners to bury any prejudice against Jews and beware of the poison of Jew-hatred spread by the common enemy, the Germans.
Kaziks Polish Navy The Betrayal
The initial territorial separation and later annihilation of the Jews, on the one hand, and the decimation of the Catholic clergy and suppression of Catholic organizations, on the other, precluded any public protest. Considering the great number of Jews, and their crushing persecution by the Germans, any help on a mass scale was out of the question; one could only consider individual people and families, or children—hiding them outside the ghettos. Apolinary M. Hartglass, President of the Zionist Organization, former member of the Polish Paliament and a member of the Warsaw Jewish Council, who managed to leave Warsaw in April , on the attitude of the Poles toward the Jews:.
The relations are good in the areas annexed to the Reich. The same kind of treatment is meted out on both peoples. In the Warsaw district the relations have improved. With few exceptions, the Polish intellectuals are friendly toward the Jews and help them when they can. The same is true of the organized workingmen and of the thinking people. But the attitude of the Polish masses remains unchanged.
Talk:Polish contribution to World War II
There is also another side to the picture. Poles often rise and offer their seats when women wearing the Jewish badge enter street cars. It is true, however, that there have been instances of elderly Jews being forced off cars by Polish youths. But all in all, the Polish attitude toward the Jews is far more favorable than previously. The Polish anti-Semites have not joined forces with Germans. Only one of the anti-Semitic groups, the Falange [Falanga], made overtures to the Germans, suggesting that it be co-opted in governing the Jews, since its program was akin to that of the Nazis.
The Germans brushed this proposal aside.